The Local Group of Galaxies

The Local Group is our small cluster of galaxies; it was first recognized by Hubble, in the time of the first distance determinations and redshift measurements. A total of three or four large and over 30 small galaxies are members of this group.

Here we present information and - whereever available - images of the Local Group galaxies, candidates and some former candidates. Please send me images or info on images of those galaxies which don't already have one!

  • List of all images
  • Discovery of the Local Group Galaxies
  • Local Group Galaxies by Name

    Local Group Member Galaxies

    Galaxy              Con  RA      Dec        mag        dim
    
    WLM Cet 00:02.0 -15:28 10.9v 12 x 4 IC 10 Cas 00:20.4 +59:18 10.3v 7.3 x 6.4 Cet dw Cet 00:26.1 -11:02 14.4 5.0 x 4.3 NGC 147 Cas 00:33.2 +48:31 9.5v 15.0 x 9.4 And III And 00:35.4 +36:31 13.5p 4.5 x 3.0 NGC 185 Cas 00:39.0 +84:20 9.2v 14.5 x 12.5 M 110 And 00:41.3 +41:41 8.5v 19.5 x 12.5 And VIII And 00:42.3 +40:37 9.1v 45 x 10 M 32 And 00:42.7 +40:52 8.1v 11.0 x 7.3 M 31 And 00:42.7 +41:16 3.4v 185.0 x 75.0 And I And 00:45.7 +38:00 13.2 2.5 x 2.5 SMC Tuc 00:51.7 -73:14 2.3v 280 x 160 And IX And 00:52.9 +43:12 16.2 5 Scl dw Scl 01:00.0 -33:42 10.5p 39.8 x 30.9 LGS 3 (Psc dw) Psc 01:03.8 +21:53 15.4p 2 IC 1613 Cet 01:05.1 +02:08 9.2v 20.0 x 18.5 And X And 01:06.6 +44:48 16.1 7 And V And 01:10.3 +47:38 15.9 2.0 x 1.5 And II And 01:16.4 +33:27 13.5 3.6 x 2.5 M 33 Tri 01:33.9 +30:39 5.7v 67.0 x 41.5 Phe dw Phe 01:51.1 -44:27 13.1 4.9 x 4.1 For dw For 02:39.9 -34:32 8.1v 12.0 x 10.2 UGCA 92 Cam 04:32.0 +63:36 13.8 2.0 x 1.0 LMC Dor 05:19.7 -68:57 0.1v 650 x 550 Car dw Car 06:14.6 -50:58 20.9v 23.5 x 15.5 CMa dw CMa 07:15 -28 720 Leo A (Leo III) Leo 09:59.4 +30:45 12.9 5.1 x 3.1 Sex B Sex 10:00.0 +05:20 11.8 5.1 x 3.5 NGC 3109 Hya 10:03.1 -26:09 10.4 16.0 x 2.9 Ant dw Ant 10:04.1 -27:20 14.8 2.0 x 1.5 Leo I Leo 10:08.5 +12:18 9.8 9.8 x 7.4 Sex A Sex 10:11.1 -04:43 11.9 5.9 x 4.9 Sex dw Sex 10:13.2 -01:37 12. 30.0 x 12.0 Leo II (Leo B) Leo 11:13.5 +22:10 12.6 12.0 x 11.0 GR 8 Vir 12:58.7 +14:13 14.5p 1.2 x 1.1 UMi dw UMi 15:08.8 +67:12 10.9v 41.0 x 26.0 Dra dw Dra 17:20.1 +57:55 9.9v 51.0 x 31.0 Milky Way cent: Sgr 17:45.6 -28:56 SagDEG (Sag dSph) Sgr 18:55 -30:30 4.5 450.0 x 216.0 Sgr dw (SagDIG) Sgr 19:30.1 -17:42 15.5 2.9 x 2.1 NGC 6822 (DDO 209) Sgr 19:44.9 -14:49 9.3 15.5 x 13.5 Aqr dw (AqrDIG) Aqr 20:46.8 -12:51 13.9v 2.3 x 1.2 Tuc dw Tuc 22:41.7 -64:25 15.7 2.9 x 1.2 UKS2323-326 Scl 23:26.5 -32:23 13.9 1.5 x 1.2 And VII (Cas dSph) Cas 23:27.8 +50:35 12.9 2.5 x 2.0 Peg dw Peg 23:28.6 +14:45 13.2 5.0 x 2.7 And VI (Peg dSph) Peg 23:51.7 +24:36 11.2 3.5 x 3.5

    Possible Further Members

    UGCA 86             Cam  03:59.9 +67:08   13.5     0.8 x 0.7
    IC 5152             Ind  22:02.9 -51:17   10.6v    4.9 x 3.0
    

    Willman 1 (UMa I) UMa 10:49.4 +51:03 15.3 1.75 UMa I UMa 10:34.9 +51:55 UMa II UMa 08:51.5 +63:08 14.3 Vir Stream Vir 12:24 -01.1 30 x 10 CVn I CVn 13:28.1 +33:33 13.9 8.4 x 5.0 Boo dw Boo 14:00.0 +14:30 13.6 13.0 x 8.7 Leo T Leo 09:34.9 +17:03 16.0 1.4 x 1.4 Com dw Com 12:27.0 +23:54 14.5 5.0 x 2.5 CVn II CVn 12:57.2 +34:19 15.1 3.0 x 2.1 Her dw Her 16:31.0 +12:48 14.7 8.0 x 6.0 Leo IV Leo 11:32.9 -00:32 15.9 3.3 x 2.5

    And XI And 00:46.3 +33:48 0.5 And XII And 00:47.4 +34:22 0.55 And XIII And 00:51.8 +33:00 0.5 And XIV And 00:51.6 +29:41

    Segue 2 Ari 02:19:16.0 +20:10:31 Boo II Boo 13:58:08.0 +12:50:54 Leo V Leo 11:31:09.6 +02:13:12 Boo III Boo 13:57:07.4 +26:46:30 Psc II Psc 22:58:31 +05:57:31

    And XV And 01:14:18.7 +38:07:03 And XVI And 00:59:29.8 +32:22:36 And XVII And 00:37:07.0 +44:19:20 And XVIII And 00:02:14.5 +45:05:20 And XIX And 00:19:32.10 +35:02:37.1 And XX And 00:07:30.70 +35:07:56.4 And XXI And 23:54:47.7 +42:28:15 And XXII And 01:27:40.0 +28:05:25 And XXIII And 01:29:21.8 +38:43:08 And XXIV And 01:18:30.0 +46:21:58 And XXV And 00:30:08.9 +46:51:07 And XXVI And 00:23:45.6 +47:54:58 And XXVII And 00:37:27.1 +45:23:13 And XXVIII And 22:32:41.20 +31:12:58.2 And XXIX And 23:58:55.6 +30:45:20 And XXX (Cas II) Cas 00:36:34.9 +49:38:48 And XXXI (Lac I) Lac 22:58:16.3 +41:17:28 And XXXII (Cas III) Cas 00:35:59.4 +51:33:35 And XXXIII (Per I) Per 03:01:23.6 +40:59:18 And NE And 00:52.0 +44:06

    Nearby Non-Member (?) Galaxies

                    
    NGC 55              Scl  00:14.9 -39:11    8.8    32.4 x 5.6
    NGC 404             And  01:09.4 +35:43   10.1v    4.4 x 4.1 
    Cam A               Cam  04:25.3 +72:48   14.8     3.7 x 2.1
    NGC 1569            Cam  04:30.8 +64:51   11.2v    2.9 x 1.5
    NGC 1560            Cam  04:32.8 +71:53   11.5v    9.8 x 2.0
    Argo dw   (Car II)  Car  07:05.3 -58:31   14.2     3.5 x 1.7
    UGC 9128  (DDO 187) Boo  14:15.9 +23:03   14.4     1.7 x 1.3
    
    Key:
    Galaxy
    Identification of the galaxy
    Con
    Constellation
    RA, Dec:
    Right Ascension and Declination for epoch 2000.0
    mag
    Apparent magnitude (v: visual, p: photographic)
    dim
    Dimension in arc minutes

    Astronomical data

    Probable Local Group Members:
                    
    Galaxy      Other name Rm Type             RV    Dist  Diam  Mass
                                                          
    WLM                    *  IB(s) IV-V       - 42  3400     8       ?
    IC 10                     KBm?             - 83  4200:      
    Cet dw                 I  dE4                    2800
    NGC 147     DDO 3         dE5 pec          + 89  2400 
    And III                   dE2                    2900: 
    NGC 185                   dE3 pec          + 39  2300 
    M110        NGC 205       E5 pec           -  1  2900    17   10000
    M32         NGC 221       E2 (cE2)         + 35  2900     8    3000
    M31         NGC 224       SA(s)b I-II      - 59  2900   195  400000
    And I                     dE3 pec ?              2900: 
    SMC         NGC 292       SB(s)m pec       - 30   210    25    6000
    And IX                    dSph
    Scl dw      E351-G30      dE3 pec          +162   300: 
    LGS 3       Psc dw     *  Irr                    3000: 
    IC 1613     DDO 8         IAB(s)m V        -125  2900: 
    And X                     dSph                   2900:
    And V                     dSph                   2900:
    And II      Psc II        dE0                    2900: 
    M33         NGC 598       SA(s)cd II-III   +  3  3000    60   25000
    Phe dw                 I  Irr                    1600:      
    For dw      E356-G04      dE2                     530:
    UGCA 92     EGB0427+63 I  Irr ? S0 ?       + 66  4700       
    LMC                       SB(s)m           + 13   179    30   20000
    Car dw      E206-G220     dE3                     360  
    CMa dw                    Irr                      25
    Leo A       Leo III    ?  IBm V            - 26  2500  
    Sex B       DDO 70     I  Ir+ IV-V               4700      
    NGC 3109    DDO 236    I  Ir+ IV-V         +131  4500
    Ant dw      PGC 29194  I  dE3                    4600     5 
    Leo I       Regulus G.    dE3                     900  
    Sex A       DDO 75        Ir+ V                  5200  
    Sex dw                    dE3                     320  
    Leo II      Leo B         dE0 pec                 750  
    GR  8       DDO 155    ?  Im V             +165  7900:
    UMi dw      DDO 199       dE4                     240  
    Dra dw      DDO 208       dE0 pec           -31   280  
    Milky Way                 SAB(s)bc I-II ?     0    28   100  750000
    SagDEG      Sgr I dw   *  dE7                      80       
    Sgr dw      SagDIG     *  IB(s)m V               4200 
    NGC 6822    Barnard's     IB(s)m IV-V      + 66  1800
    Aqr dw      DDO 210    ?  Im V                   3400
    Tuc dw                    dE5                    3200
    UKS2323-326               Irr                    4700       
    And VII     Cas dSph      dSph                   2600 
    Peg dw      DDO 216       Im V                   3000:
    And VI      Peg dSph      dSph                   2800
    

    Possible Further Members:

    UGCA 86                ?  Irr ? S0 ?       +262  6200      
    IC 5152                ?  IAB(s)m IV       + 30  5800
    
    Wilman 1                  dSph ? GC ?             147
    UMa I                     dSph                    330
    UMa II                    dSph                    815
    Vir Stream                dSph                     30
    CVn I                     dSph                    730
    Boo dw                    dSph                    200
    Leo T                     dSph                   1370
    Com dw                    dSph                    143            
    CVn II                    dSph                    490
    Her                       dSph                    460
    Leo IV                    dSph                    520
     
    Segue 2          
    Boo II               
    Leo V         
    Boo III              
    Psc II               
    
    And XI                    dSph                   2900:
    And XII                   dSph                   2900:
    And XIII    Psc III       dSph                   2900:
    And XIV     Psc IV        dSph                   2900:
    
    And XV
    And XVI
    And XVII
    And XVIII
    And XIX
    And XX
    And XXI
    And XXII
    And XXIII
    And XXIV
    And XXV          
    And XXVI         
    And XXVII         
    And XXVIII        
    And XXIX
    And XXX     Cas II
    And XXXI    Lac I
    And XXXII   Cas III
    And XXXIII  Per I  
    
    And NE
    

    Probable Nearby Non-Members:

    Galaxy     Other name  Rm   Type           RV    Dist   Diam  Mass  
                            
    NGC 55                     Sc              +129  7000::
    NGC 404                    E0 or SA(s)0-   +178  8000::             
    NGC 1569                   Irp+ III-IV:    + 87  7500::
    NGC 1560   IC 2062         Sd              +151  7500::
    Cam A                      Irr                   6500::
    Argo dw    AM 0704-582     Irr                  12000::       
    UGC 9128   DDO 187         Irp+            +154
    

    Key:

    Rm:
    Remarks: *, ? and I; see below
    Type:
    Classification type from Tom Polakis' article
    RV:
    Radial velocity wrt galactic center in km/sec
    Dist:
    Distance in 1000 light years
    Diam:
    Diameter in 1000 light years
    Mass:
    Mass in million solar masses
    Remarks "*": Galaxies marked with "?" may be non-members as they are not in the list of Irwin et.al. 1997 (this list has 35 Local Group members), in particular: Galaxies marked with "I" are newly taken into the list from Irwin's list (besides the newly discovered Antlia dwarf, these are the Phoenix dwarf, UGCA 92, Sextans B, and NGC 3109.

    Doubty or unconfirmed candidates listed in some sources:

    Galaxy             listed     Remarks
    
    1010-27            McGraw     (= Ant dw ?)
    Snickers
    

    Former Candidates

    Object             Listed     Remarks
    
    LGS 2              I          Reflection nebulosity (or remote dwarf galaxy)
    Sex C (A 1003)     dV, LGAA   Palomar 3, a remote Milky Way globular cluster
    UMa dw (A 1127)    dV, LGAA   Palomar 4, a remote Milky Way globular cluster 
    Ser dw (A 1513)    dV         Palomar 5, a remote Milky Way globular cluster
    Cap dw (A 2144)    dV,McGraw  Now identified as globular cluster Palomar 12
    And IV             vdB        Background galaxy, or star cluster in M31
    SDIG               KKT        Member of the Sculptor Group of Galaxies
    IC 342             Hubble     Member of the Maffei 1 or IC 342 Group of Galaxies
    Maffei 1           Maffei     Member of the Maffei 1 or IC 342 Group of Galaxies
    Maffei 2           Maffei     Member of the Maffei 1 or IC 342 Group of Galaxies
    NGC 6946           Hubble     Nearby non-member
    2318-42            I          A candidate before its redshift was measured
    
    Sources:
    "Galaxy"           Con  RA      Dec       mag        dim
    
    SDIG               Scl  00:08.2 -34:35   15.5     1.1 x 0.9
    LGS 2              And  00:29.3 +33:21   19         3 x 2
    And IV             And  00:42.5 +40:34  
    Maffei 1           Cas  02:36.3 +59:39   11.4     3.4 x 1.7
    Maffei 2           Cas  02:41.9 +59:36   16.0     5.8 x 1.6
    IC 342             Cam  03:46.8 +68:06    9.1    21.4 x 20.9
    Snickers           Aur  06:28   +15
    Sex C              Sex  10:05.5 +00:04   14.3        2.8
    UMa dw             UMa  11:29.3 +28:58   14.2        2.1
    Ser dw             Ser  15:16.1 -00:07   11.8        6.9
    NGC 6946           Cep  20:34.8 +60:09    8.9    11.0 x 10.0
    Cap dw             Cap  21:46.6 +21:15   12.0       17.4
    2318-42            Gru  23:20.8 -41:44   14.6     1.7 x 1.4
    
    Galaxy    Other name  Rm   Type           RV     Dist   Diam  Mass  
    
    SDIG      PGC 621          IBm            +207  10000
    LGS 2     PGC 1792    DN?  dwarf G or Nb
    And IV    PGC 2544    OC?  Irr G or OC           2900?  
    Maffei 1  UGCA 34          E/S0- pec:     + 13  10000
    Maffei 2  UGCA 39          SBb            - 17  10000
    IC 342    UGC 2847         Sc             + 31  10000
    Snickers
    Sex C     Palomar 3   GC                          302
    UMa dw    Palomar 4   GC                          356
    Ser dw    Palomar 5   GC                           76
    NGC 6946  H IV.76          Sc             +338  10000
    Cap dw    Palomar 12  GC                  + 28     62   .017
    2318-42   E347-G008        Irr           +1640  70000:
    
    As our Milky Way obscures parts of the sky, there is still a steady flow of new discoveries of galaxies, in low galactic latitudes (i.e., near the equatorial plane of our galaxy, where the obscuring dust is most dense). Also, some of the galaxies are of extreme low surface brightness, and it was only recently possible to detect them. Therefore, it must be expected that more Local Group members exist, obscurred by dust, or extremely faint, and are still waiting for their detection somewhen in the future.

    Links


    Please notify me of more Local Group links !

    References

    Note: The images displayed in these pages were generously contributed by their various authors. Some of the images shown in the pages linked here are subject to third-party rights which we would like to be respectfully observed.


    [SEDS] | [MAA]
    Hartmut Frommert
    Christine Kronberg
    [contact]

    Last Modification: February 28, 2012