NGC Online Cross Identifications

The cross reference file for the SEDS NGC Online service has been compiled by Hartmut Frommert from the original NGC and IC catalogs and other sources such as the original GC (John Herschel 1864), Dreyer's corrections of 1912 (Dreyer 1912), and Carlson's corrections (Carlson 1940). In addition, we have added some additional historical (pre-NGC) and modern (post-IC) identifications. The references are marked:

The following older, basic catalogs are mostly contained in the NGC:

Messier. Charles Messier's Catalog. Published in 3 steps 1771, 1780 and 1781, includes discoveries by Pierre Méchain, and later additions from Messier's and Méchain's work (Messier 1771, Messier 1780, Messier 1780a, Messier 1781; Méchain 1783, Messier 1798). Here all 110 modern entries are used (M1 - M110). Available online. Messier Catalog webpages.
NGC. New General Catalogue. Published 1888 by J.L.E. Dreyer (Dreyer 1888). Dreyer himself published notes and corrections to the NGC in: an appendix to the IC I (Dreyer 1894), an appendix to the IC II (Dreyer 1908), and a separate paper (Dreyer 1912). NGC 1 - NGC 7840. Later corrections by Dorothy Carlson (Carlson 1940), the RNGC (Sulentic, Tifft 1973), the NGC 2000.0 (Sinnott 1988), the NGC/IC project (Corwin, and the Revised NGC and IC (Steinicke). Extensive info in Steinicke (2009).
IC. Index Catalogue. Published in two parts 1895 and 1908 by J.L.E. Dreyer (Dreyer 1895, Dreyer 1908). The IC II also contains corrections to the IC I in appendix. Later corrections by Dorothy Carlson (Carlson 1940), the NGC 2000.0 (Sinnott 1988), the NGC/IC project (Corwin, and the Revised NGC and IC (Steinicke). IC I: IC 1 - IC 1529; IC II: IC 1530 - IC 5386.
GC. General Catalogue. Compiled 1864 by John Herschel (J. Herschel, 1864), with 1877 addendum by J.L.E. Dreyer (Dreyer 1877). 1864: GC 1 - GC 5079; 1877: GC 5080 - GC 6251.
John Herschel. Catalogs of 1833 and 1847 (J. Herschel 1833, J. Herschel 1847). 1833: h 1 - h 2307; 1847: h 2308 - h 4021.
William Herschel. Catalogs of 1786, 1789, 1802 (W. Herschel 1786, W. Herschel 1789, W. Herschel 1802); plus addenda published in John Herschel's 1847 catalog (J. Herschel 1847). Includes [most of] Caroline Herschel's findings. See William Herschel Catalog webpage.
Caroline Herschel. Unpublished list of her discoveries of "clusters and nebulae." See Hoskin (2005) and Hoskin (2006). Available online. CH 1 - CH 20.
Lacaille. Nicholas Louis de Lacaille's Catalog of 1755 (Lacaille 1755). Reprinted as appendix to the Messier Catalog versions of 1780 and 1781 (Messier 1780, Messier 1781). Available online.
Dunlop. James Dunlop's Catalog of 1826 (Dunlop 1828). See Dunlop Catalog webpage. Dun 1-629.
Other sources and cross references:
3C (mod)
Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources. Edge (1959). Also: Bennett (1962), and the SIMBAD VizieR Online Catalog VIII/1A (SIMBAD 2002).

Aitken (IC II)
Aitken. AN No. 3667 (Aitkin 1900) [IC 3568].
ARO (mod)
Algonquin Radio Observatory. L.A. Higgs (1971).
Arp (mod)
Halton Arp's Catalog of Peculiar Galaxies. Arp (1966). Dennis Webb's Arp Catalog website, Online version of Arp's Original Catalog.
d'A, d'Arrest (NGC)
Heinrich Ludwig (Henri Louis) d'Arrest. A few references are to d'Arrest's Erste Reihe (Leipzig, 1856). Also: AN No. 1369 (d'Arrest 1862). The big lot is from his Siderum Nebulosorum Observationes Havienses [Copenhagen Observations of Nebulous Stars] (D'Arrest 1867); these are very acurate positions.
Austin (NGC)
Austin. See Harvard College
Auw, Auwers (NGC)
Arthur Auwers. Auwers (1862), and AN Vol. 58, No. 1392 (Auwers 1862a).
also: Auw # (GC)

Bailey (IC II)
Solon I. Bailey. Bailey (1908). Of the 13 non-NGC objects in this work, Dreyer inserted 11 into the IC II, omitting the Pleiades (M45) and the Hyades [IC 2128, 2391, 2395, 2488, [2599,] 2602, 2714, 4651, 4665, 4725 (M25), 4756].
Ball (NGC)
Ball. See Lord Rosse*
Barnard (NGC, IC I, IC II, mod)
Edward Emerson Barnard.
NGC: Nebulae found with a 6-inch refractor from Nashville, TN, in The Siderial Messenger, Vol. I-III and privately communicated to Dreyer. AN No. 2490 (Barnard 1883) [NGC 5584], AN No. 2588 (Barnard 1884) [NGC 281, 1255, 2568, 6302], AN No. 2624 (Barnard 1885) [NGC 6822], AN No. 2687 (Barnard 1885a), AN No. 2690 (Barnard 1886), AN No. 2755 (Barnard 1886a) [NGC 1721, 1725, 1728], AN No. 2756 (Barnard 1886b) [NGC 2282], AN No. 2918 (Barnard 1889a), AN No. 4136 (Barnard 1907a) [NGC 6302], and Barnard (1895) [NGC 1499].
IC I: Some very extensive diffuse photographic objects. AN No. 2998 (Barnard 1890) [IC 917-919, 921-932, 934-938], AN No. 3004 (Barnard 1891a) [IC 1122], AN No. 3017 (Barnard 1891b) [IC 351], AN No. 3018 (Barnard 1891c) [IC 349], AN No. 3038 (Barnard 1891d) [IC 492], AN No. 3097 (Barnard 1892a) [IC 48, 356], AN No. 3101 (Barnard 1892b) [IC 1284], AN No. 3110 (Barnard 1892c) [IC 1470], AN No. 3111 (Barnard 1892d) [IC 1274, 1275, 1283, 1287], AN No. 3200 (Barnard 1894a) [IC 1296], AN No. 3253 (Barnard 1894b) [IC 336, 341, 353, 354, 360], and other sources.
IC II: AN No. 3301 (Barnard 1895a) [IC 4591, 4592, 4603, 4604, 4605], AN No. 3315 (Barnard 1895b) [IC 4673], AN No. 4112 (Barnard 1906), AN No. 4136 (Barnard 1907) [IC 4562, 4564-4567, 5191-5193, 5351, 5352, 5356, 5357, 5359], AN No. 4239 (Barnard 1908) [IC 4678, 4681, 4684, 4685, 4690, 4700, 4701, 4706, 4707, 4715 (=M24?)], Barnard (1895c), Barnard (1897), Barnard (1901), Barnard (1907b), Barnard (1907c), and private communication.
mod: Barnard's famous catalog of dark nebulae, embedded in a photographic atlas of the Milky Way (Barnard 1919, 1927). B 1 - B 349.
Bevis (hist)
John Bevis. Atlas Celeste (Uranographia Britannica; Bevis 1750) [M1, M11, M13, M22, M31, M35 - M1 and M35 new], and letter to Messier of June, 1771 [M1; see Messier, and in particular Messier (1781)]
Bidschof (IC II)
Bidschof. AN No. 3520 (Bidschof 1898) [IC 1872, 2951]
B., Bigourdan, G. (NGC, IC I, IC II)
Guillaume Bigourdan.
NGC: 102 nebulae, privately communicated by Bigourdan to Dreyer. Comptes Rendus, Vol. CV, pp. 926-929 (Bigourdan 1887a), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CV, pp. 1116-1119 (Bigourdan 1887b).
IC I: Second list (of 132), Comptes Rendus, March and April 1891. Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXII, pp. 647-650 (Bigourdan 1891a), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXII, pp. 703-705 (Bigourdan 1891b), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXII, pp. 848-850 (Bigourdan 1891c).
IC II: Third (112 new objects) and fourth (99) list, Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXIII, pp. 1243-1245 (Bigourdan 1896), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXIV, pp. 65-67 (Bigourdan 1897a), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXIV, pp. 133-135 (Bigourdan 1897b); Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXXII, pp. 1094-1097 (Bigourdan 1901a), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXXII, pp. 1465-1467 (Bigourdan 1901b), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXXIII, pp. 26-28 (Bigourdan 1901c), Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXXIII, pp. 206-208 (Bigourdan 1901d).
Listed as B. 1-455.
Bode (hist)
Johann Elert Bode's "Complete Catalog" of 77 deepsky objects (Bode 1777, Bode 1779). English translation available online.
Also: Bode's Vorstellung der Gestirne auf 34 Kupfertafeln (Bode 1782). See Bode's 1782 catalog extracted from this work.
Bond (NGC)
G.P. Bond's list of nebulae and clusters found at Harvard (Bond 1863). Objects found by G.P. Bond, S. Coolidge and A. Safford. Also: AN Vol. 56, No. 1337 (Bond 1862), AN Vol. 61, No. 1453 (Bond 1864). Also Pickering (1908), p. 148 (H.N. 1-14).
Borelly (NGC)
Alph. Borelly. AN No. 1885 (Borelly 1872a) and Borelly (1872b)
Burnham (NGC, IC I, IC II)
S.W. Burnham.
NGC: Burnham (1878a), Burnham (1878b), and AN No. 2524 (Hough 1883)
IC I: AN No. 3048 (Burnham 1891) [IC 363, 366], Burnham (1894)
IC II: Burnham (1900)

Caroline Herschel, see above.
Collinder, Cr (mod)
Per Collinder (1890 - Dec 6, 1974). Catalogue of 471 open clusters, identified on the Franklin-Adams charts, the NGC catalog, and the catalogs of Bailey, Melotte, Raab, Shapley, Trumpler, and others. Collinder (1931)
Common (NGC)
Ainslie Common. About 32 new nebulae (Common 1880)
Coolidge (NGC)
S. Coolidge. See Bond.
Copeland (NGC)
Ralph Copeland. See Lord Rosse* if (R) is added. Other discoveries from Peru (Copernicus III, p. 206) and Dun Echt (Copeland 1884)

De Chéseaux, deCh (hist)
Philippe Loys de Chéseaux's list of 1746 (De Chéseaux 1746), as published by G. Bigourdan in 1892 (Bigourdan 1892). Available online. DeCh 1 - DeCh 21.
Denning (IC I)
W.F. Denning. Denning (1890), and private communication to J.L.E. Dreyer.
Dreyer (NGC)
J.L.E. Dreyer. See Lord Rosse*
D.S. (IC II)
See Delisle Stewart

Engelhardt (NGC)
Engelhardt. About 100 nebulae from Observations Astronomique faites par B. d'Engelhard dans son Observatoire in Dresde, Vol. 1, Dresden, and 90 further privately communicated to Dreyer.
Engelmann (NGC)
R. Engelmann. AN No. 2485 (Engelmann 1883)
Espin (IC I, IC II)
Rev. T.E. Espin.
IC I: Espin (1894)
IC II: AN No. 3633 (Espin 1900), and Espin (1906).

Finlay (IC II)
William Henry Finlay. 5 nebulae observed at the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, reported by David Gill: Gill (1898) [IC 2949, 4407, 4606, 5240, 5267]
Fleming (IC I, ICII)
Williamina P. Fleming.
IC I: Pickering (1890), AN No. 3049 (Pickering, Fleming 1891) [IC 418 (Spirograph Nebula)], AN No. 3227 (Pickering, Fleming 1894) [IC 1266, 1297]. AN No. 3269 (Fleming 1895) [IC 1108, 1292], Also Pickering (1908), pp. 149-150.
IC II: Planetary nebulae discovered by their spectra. AN (?); A.A.P. 13, 502; H.C. 9, 32, 42, 56, 60, 76, 98, 111, and 124 (also Pickering 1908, p. 150).
mod: 3 southern planetary nebulae, Fg 1-3. See Fleming, Pickering (1910) and Fleming, Pickering (1911).
F., Frost (IC II)
Royal H. Frost. Nebulae found by photography. Mostly southern nebulae taken with the 24-inch Bruce refractor at Harvard's Arequipa station (Pickering 1908, pp. 179-192). H.N. Nos. 786-1238 (denoted F. 786-1238 in IC II).

Gale (IC II)
Walter F. Gale. AN No. 3426 (Gale 1897) [IC 5150]
Graff (mod)
Kasimir Graff. AN No. 5198 (Graff 1923). Graff 1 = IC 4756 (Graff's Cluster).

Hartwig (NGC)
Ernst Hartwig. AN No. 2507 (Hartwig 1883a); AN No. 2544 (Hartwig 1883b); AN No. 2688 (Hartwig 1885).
Harvard College (NGC)
Harvard College Observations, Vol. xiii (13), part I (Harvard 1888). Contains new discoveries by Austin, Langley, Peirce, Searle, Wendell, Winlock.
He2 (mod)
Karl G. Henize. He2. Southern planetary nebulae. Henize (1967).
Paul and Prosper Henry. Photographically discovered the Maia nebula in the Pleiades, NGC 1432 (Henry, Henry 1886a and 1886b).
CH. Caroline Herschel (NGC)
see above.
Hodierna, Ha. (hist)
Giovanni Battista Hodierna. A catalog of nebulous objetcs is the second part of his book, "De systemate orbis cometici, deque admirandis coeli characteribus" Hodierna (1654). This is the first ever catalog devoted to deepsky objects! See Hodierna Catalog webpage.
Holden (NGC)
Edward Singleton Holden. Nebulae found with the 15.5-inch refractor at Madison (Holden 1882 and 1884).
Hough (NGC)
G.W. Hough. AN No. 2524 (Hough 1883)
Ho., Howe (IC II)
Herbert A. Howe. Three lists of nebulae found with the 20-inch refractor at Denver, CO.
    I.   Howe (1898)
    II.  Howe (1899)
    III. Howe (1900)

Innes (IC II)
T.R.A. Innes. Nebulae found with the 7-inch refractor at Cape Observatory, reported by David Gill: Gill (1898) [IC 2042, 4490, 4865, 5079], Gill (1899) [5 new nebulae], Gill (1902) [3 new nebulae].

J., Javelle (IC I, IC II)
M. Javelle.
IC I: Two lists of 807 nebulae found with the 30-inch equatorial at Nice Observatory (Javelle 1895 and 1897)
IC II: Third list (Javelle 1908)

Keeler (IC II)
James E. Keeler. Seven nebulae found on photos of M51 with the Crossley reflector (Keeler 1899).
Kobold (IC I, IC II)
IC I: AN No. 3184 (Kobold 1893); AN No. 3241 (Kobold 1894) [IC 707].
IC II: Becker, Kobold (1898)

Langley (NGC)
Langley. See Harvard College
L, Leavenworth (NGC)
Leavenworth. See Ormond Stone
Lohse (NGC)
Lohse. 20 new nebulae found with the 15.5-inch refractor at Mr. Woggleworth's Observatory at Scarborough. Letters to Dreyer.
Lunt (IC II)
Lunt. Seven new nebulae found with the 18-inch refractor at the Cape Observatory, reported by David Gill: Gill (1902).

Marth (NGC)
Marth. About 600 nebulae found at Malte with Lassell's 4-ft. Reflector. MmRAS Vol. 36.
Melbourne (NGC)
Discoveries from the Melbourne Observatory.
Melotte, Mel (mod)
Philibert Jacques Melotte (Jan 29, 1880 - Mar 30, 1961): the Melotte catalog of open star clusters (Melotte 1915). Mel 1-245.
Mu, Muller (NGC)
Muller. See Ormond Stone

Palisa (NGC, IC II)
NGC: Nebulae discovered with the 27 and 12-inch refractors at Vienna Observatory. Wiener Beobachtungen, Vierte Folge, Vols. 2, 3, 4, and AN No. 2520 (Palisa 1883a), AN No. 2544 (Palisa 1883b), AN No. 2732 (Palisa 1886), and AN No. 2782 (Palisa 1887).
IC II: AN No. 3235 (Palisa 1894) [IC 1514], AN No. 3520 (Palisa 1898) [IC 5290], AN No. 3634 (Palisa 1900) [IC 1748].
Pechüle (IC I)
Pechüle. AN No. 2911 (Pechüle 1889) [IC 503], AN No. 3259 (Pechüle 1894) [IC 4, 1369].
Peirce (NGC)
see Harvard College
PK, Perek-Kohoutek (modern)
L. Perek and L. Kohoutek's catalog of planetary nebulae (Perek and Kohoutek 1967).
Peters (NGC)
C.H.F. Peters. A few new nebulae (Peters 1881, 1882)
Pickering (NGC, IC I, IC II)
Edward C. Pickering.
NGC: Some starlike planetary nebulae, detected by spectroscopy. Pickering (1882), and private letter to Dreyer.
IC I: Several nebulae discovered by W.P. Fleming were assigned by Dreyer to Pickering, including IC 418 (Spirograph Nebula), IC 1266, IC 1297.
IC II: Few objects (Pickering 1891a).

Roberts (IC II)
Isaac Roberts. Photographical discoveries. AN No. 3429 (Roberts 1897), AN No. 3509 (Roberts 1898) [IC 2177 (Eagle Nebula, Seagull Nebula)], and Roberts (1903).
Ld R, Lord Rosse (NGC)
William Parsons, the Third Earl of Rosse. Nebulae detected at Birr Castle, mostly around brighter nebulae. Nebulae discovered to 1861 (Rosse 1850, Rosse 1861). An overview is in Rosse (1880). Observers include G.J. Stoney, B. Stoney, and R.J. Mitchell.
Ld R*, the Fourth Earl of Rosse (NGC)
Lawrence Parsons, the Fourth Earl of Rosse. Nebulae found by the Fourth Earl of Rosse with the instruments of his father. He also hosted observers Ball, Copeland and Dreyer.
Rümker (NGC)
George Rümker. Observed 135 nebulae. AN No. 1508 (Rümker 1865a), AN No. 1531 (Rümker 1865b), AN No. 1566 (Rümker 1866a), AN No. 1599 (Rümker 1866b), and AN No. 1631 (Rümker 1866c).

Safford (NGC, IC I)
NGC: see Bond. Also, a list of objects not listed in the NGC is given as appendix. These are added to the IC I.
IC I: Includes the objects from the list appended to the NGC.
Schmidt (NGC)
Julius Schmidt. AN No. 1678 (Schmidt 1868), and AN No. 1678 (Schmidt 1876).
Schönfeld (NGC)
Schönfeld. Observations of 489 nebulae, in Astr. Beobachtungen auf der Grossherzoglichen Sternwarte zu Mannheim, Vols. 1 and 2, 1862-1875.
Schultz (NGC)
Herman Schultz. Observations of 500 nebulae, in Micrometrical Observations of 500 Nebulae, Upsala, 1874, as well as Schultz (1875).
Sn., Schwassmann (IC II)
A. Schwassmann. Nebulae found on plates taken by Max Wolf with a 6-inch lens. Schwassmann (1902).
Searle (NGC)
see Harvard College
Secchi (NGC)
A. Secchi. 14 new discoveries. AN No. 1571 (Secchi 1866).
Spitaler (IC I)
Spitaler. AN No. 2932 (Weiss 1889) [IC 498], AN No. 2992 (Weiss 1890) [IC 558], AN No. 2993 (Spitaler 1890) [IC 54, 192, 1197, 1257], AN No. 3100 (Spitaler 1892) [IC 1 (=NGC 153)], AN No. 3167/3168 (Spitaler 1893) [IC 771].
Stephan (NGC)
Nebulae found with the 0.8-meter silvered glass reflector at Marseille.
    St I.    AN Vol. 76, No. 1810. Also MNRAS Vol. 32, p. 23.
    St II.   AN Vol. 78, No. 1867. Also MNRAS Vol. 32, p. 23.
    St III.  AN Vol. 79, No. 1876. Also MNRAS Vol. 32, p. 231.
    St IV.   AN Vol. 81, No. 1939. Also MNRAS Vol. 33, p. 433.
    St V.    AN Vol. 83, No. 1972. Also MNRAS Vol. 34, p. 75.
    St VI.   AN Vol. 83, No. 1977.
    St VII.  Comptes Rendus, Vol. 83 (1876), pp. 328-330.
    St VIII. MNRAS, Vol. 37, pp. 334-339.
    St IX.   Comptes Rendus, Vol. 87 (1878), pp. 869-871.
    St X.    Comptes Rendus, Vol. 90, p. 837.
    St XI.   Comptes Rendus, Vol. 92, p. 1128, 1183, 1260; AN Vol 100, No. 2390
    St XII.  Comptes Rendus, Vol. 96, p. 546, 609; AN Vol 105, No. 2502
    St XIII. Comptes Rendus, Vol. 100, p. 1043, 1107; AN Vol 111, No. 2661
D.S., Delisle Stewart (IC II)
Nebulae found by photography. Mostly southern nebulae taken with the 24-inch Bruce refractor at Harvard's Arequipa station (Pickering 1908, pp. 156-172). H.N. Nos. 109-785 (denoted D.S. 109-785 in IC II).
O. St., Ormond Stone (NGC, IC I)
NGC: Two lists of quite rough positions of 476 southern objects found by Ormond Stone, Leavenworth and Muller with the 26-inch refractor at the L.M. Cormick Observatory near Charlottesville, VA. Published in two lists in the Astronomical Journal, Vol. 7, Nos. 146 and 152, denoted "I" and "II", respectively. IC I: Publications of the Leander McCormick Observatory, Part 6.
Stratonoff (IC II)
Stratonoff. AN No. 3366 (Stratonoff 1896) [IC 1990]
Struve (NGC)
Observationes de quelques Nebuleuses; Entdeckung einiger schwacher Nebelflecken; Wiedererscheinen des Winnecke'schen Cometen und Entdeckung einiger neuer Nebelflecken; Mélanges Math. et Astron., Vol. 3, p. 569 and 689, and Vol. 4, p. 395.
Sw, Swift (NGC, IC I, IC II)
NGC: Nebulae found at the Warner Observatory, Rochester, NY since 1883 by Lewis Swift:
    Sw I.    AN Vol. 112, No. 2683.
    Sw II.   AN Vol. 113, No. 2707.
    Sw III.  AN Vol. 115, No. 2746.
    Sw IV.   AN Vol. 115, No. 2752.
    Sw V.    AN Vol. 116, No. 2763.
    Sw VI.   Communicated to Dreyer.

IC I: Four lists of nebulae found at the Warner Observatory, Rochester, NY:
    Sw VII.  AN Vol. 120, No. 2859.
    Sw VIII. AN Vol. 122, No. 2918. 
    Sw IX.   AN Vol. 126, No. 3004.
    Sw X.    AN Vol. 129, No. 3094.
    (Sw X.)  A few objects in MNRAS Vol. 53, p. 273.

IC II: More nebulae found from Echo Mountain, Los Angeles, CA:
    Sw XI.   AN Vol. 147, No. 3517 (combined 8 lists).
    Sw XII.  MNRAS Vol. 59, p. 568.

T., Tempel (NGC)
Observations of nebulae from Arcetri.
    T I.     AN Vol.  93, No. 2212
    T II.    AN Vol.  94, No. 2253
    T III.   AN Vol.  96, No. 2284
    T IV.    AN Vol.  98, No. 2347
    T V.     AN Vol. 102, No. 2439
    T VI.    AN Vol. 105, No. 2511
    T VII.   AN Vol. 106, No. 2522
    T VIII.  AN Vol. 106, No. 2527
    T IX.    AN Vol. 111, No. 2660
    T X.     AN Vol. 113, No. 2691
Thome (IC I)
Some nebula from the Cordoba Durchmusterung.
Todd (NGC)
Eight nebulae found when looking for a transneptunian planet. AN No. 2698 (Todd 1886).

UGC (mod)
P.N. Nilson's Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies (Nilson 1973).
UGCA (mod)
P.N. Nilson's Catalog of Selected Non-UGC Galaxies (Nilson 1974).

Vogel (NGC)
Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen, Leipzig, 1867, and Positionsbestimmungen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen zwischen +9d 30' und +15d 30' Deklination, Leipzig, 1876.

Wendell (NGC)
see Harvard College
Winlock (NGC)
see Harvard College
Winnecke (NGC)
Some nebulae communicated by letter to Dreyer
W., Wolf (IC I, IC II)
Max Wolf discovered a number of nebula on photographic plates taken at the observatory of the Astrophysikalisches Institut, Königstuhl-Heidelberg (Germany).
IC I: Some very extensive diffuse photographic objects. AN No. 3027 (Wolf 1891) [IC 448], AN No. 3130 (Wolf 1893) [IC 410, 417, 419, 425, 439, 443, 444], AN No. 3214 (Wolf 1894) [IC 59, 63 (Gamma Cas Nebula); IC 155].
IC II: Several lists of about 2800 nebulae discovered on photographs from the Heidelberg Observatory. List 2 is from Schwassmann (Sn.). Also: AN No. 3848 (Wolf 1903) [IC 4683], AN No. 4013 (Wolf 1905b) [IC 4358], AN No. 4082 (Wolf 1906) [IC 1831, 2088], AN No. 4207 (Wolf 1907b) [IC 4895].
Astronomical Journal
Astronomische Nachrichten
Astrophysical Journal
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
References: Links:

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